Long before he was an icon, long before everyone knew his name, when he was a fast-growing nobody back in Austria and then in Germany, he was a competitive weightlifter and then powerlifter. Then, during his Olympia-winning years in California, his fame grew with his muscles, but did his strength grow, too? How strong was Arnold Schwarzenegger?

WEIGHTLIFTING

Young Arnold competed in three Olympic-style weightlifting contests, the first (in an Austrian beer hall) when he only 14. In 1965, around the time he turned 18, he won the heavyweight class of the Austrian Olympic Lifting Championships. Back when there were three lifts, his bests were: overhead press 264 lbs. (120 kg.), snatch 243 lbs. (110 kg.), and clean and jerk 298 lbs. (135 kg.). The total of 805 lbs. (365 kg.) would’ve been a warmup at the 1964 Olympics, where the heavyweight gold medalist topped it by over 200 kg. No worries. Arnold was just a kid, and he was already collecting bodybuilding titles and about to try powerlifting.

POWERLIFTING

Arnold competed in at least three powerlifting meets over 18 months in 1966-68, progressing rapidly from a 1290-pound (585 kg.) total to just shy of 1600 (725 kg.). The latter high mark was set at the 1968 German Powerlifting Championships, where, at 20 and already Mr. Universe, he won the heavyweight class while dressed in ordinary gym clothes. His best lifts then were: squat 474 lbs. (215 kg.), bench press 441 lbs. (200 kg.), and deadlift 683 lbs. (310 kg.). His squat was lagging, but that deadlift was phenomenal, near 700 when the 800-pound barrier had yet to fall. And, again, he was only 20, and his strength was rapidly increasing. If he had bulked-up and focused on deadlifting for the next few years, he could’ve chased the world record. But this was his final powerlifting meet; and, focused exclusively on bodybuilding training, he did not do much if any deadlifting after the ’60s.

Arnold deadlifting
1968 German Powerlifting Championships

GYM BESTS

Legends grow. Fishermen expand their best catch. Runners shrink their fastest time. And bodybuilders inflate their biggest lifts. Sometimes the exaggeration is conscious, and sometimes memories fade and morph until a lie seems true. When assessing claims, we’ll rely on the evidence—video, photos, an objective eyewitness. Arnold says his best gym powerlifts were: squat 545 lbs. (247 kg.), bench press 500 lbs. (227 kg.), and deadlift 710 (322 kg.). These seem realistic in relation to what we know he did. Legends can be true, too. He also claimed to have done a 275-pound cheat curl, but that’s dependent on how much he cheated, bending his back and swaying the weight. There are photos of him cheat curling over 200 pounds in the ’60s with his back bent far backwards.

Muscle Builder magazine covered some workouts of Arnold with Dave Draper in the original Gold’s Gym, Venice, California, circa 1970. Both Mr. Universes pyramided up to bench press 425 lbs. for singles. More impressive: Arnold used 100-pound dumbbells for eight reps of flat bench flyes. Deadlifts were no longer in his routine, but his back remained especially strong. In the old-school, flat-back style (and standing precariously on a bench), he barbell rowed 315 for 10 with strict form.

Arnold squatting
Photo: Artie Zeller

Then there were the squats, lots of them, an exercise rarely associated with the seven-time Mr. Olympia and a glaring weakness from his brief powerlifting career. Topping off an onslaught of eight pyramided sets, both men did 465 for 6-8 reps. A one-rep calculator puts Arnold’s max squat at 540 to 577, depending on if he got 6 or 8 reps, which is in line with his claimed best of 545. It’s possible he grew stronger over the next few years (he competed at his heaviest in 1974, but he also had knee surgery in 1973), but we lack eyewitness or photographic evidence of bigger lifts.

In his prime, if he wasn’t piling on more metal than ever before, he was straining to eke out more reps. The photo above is the 445 set before that 465 apex. A half-century ago, Arnold was in a cinder-block box cranking out six to eight as deep as he could dive with a narrow stance and with virtually the same weight he’d used, once, for his powerlifting best two years before. Rising and rising, rep after rep, he was turning a weakness into a strength. That’s how legends are made.

See also: How Strong was Franco Columbu? and The 1969 Mr. Olympia and the Birth of Modern Bodybuilding

(Opening photo by Gene Mozee)